Health Secretary Holds Review Meeting on H1N1



Health Secretary Holds Review Meeting on H1N1

The Health Secretary Shri B P Sharma held a meeting to review the status of cases and deaths due to H1N1 in states affected with H1N1, here today. Present at the meeting were senior officers of the Ministry, Shri S. C. L. Das, Pr. Secretary (Health), Govt. of NCT of Delhi, Dr. N K Ganguly, former DG, ICMR and other health experts, Dr. Nata Menabde, Country Representative WHO, MS of AIIMS and Dr. RML hospitals, respiratory medicine experts from AIIMS, RML, Safdarjung hospitals, NCDC, and ICMR. In addition, Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) Dr. G N Singh and Jt. Secretary, Ministry of Pharmaceuticals were also present at the review meeting.


The objective of the meeting was to review the present strategy being followed to address H1N1. The strategy followed by the Ministry was put forward and guidance was sought from the experts regarding the need for any course correction.

The unanimous opinion of the experts was that the strategy being followed by the Health Ministry in terms of the treatment protocol, vaccination policy, Schedule X status for Oseltamivir drug etc., was broadly in the right direction. Suggestions were provided for strengthening future preparedness. These included deeper analysis of the data collected on the reported cases and deaths, timely and advance roll out of a targeted IEC plan, investment in research, better coordination at the state level among the various departments involved in management of H1N1, and upgradation of the emergency response systems within states.


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Recruitment Rules of Unani and Ayurvedic Pharmacists in CGHS Dispensaries


Copy of Recruitment Rules of Unani and Ayurvedic Pharmacists are placed below:-


MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE
(Department of Health)
New Delhi, dated 22nd Jan, 1979

            G.S.R. 482--In exercise of the powers conferred by the provisio to article 309 of the Constitution, the president hereby makes the following rules regulating the method of recruitment to the post of Pharmaceutical staff under Central Government Health Scheme Delhi (Group – ‘C’) Unani namely:-

1.      Short title and commencement:

(1)   These rules may be called Central Government Health Scheme Delhi (Group ‘C’ Unani Recruitment Rules, 1978)
(2)   They shall come into force from the date of their publication in the official Gazette.


2.      Number , Classification and Scale of Pay:-

The number of the said posts its classification and the scale of pay attached thereto shall be as specified in columns 3 to 5 of the Schedule annexed to these rules.

3.      Method of recruitment, age limit, qualifications etc:-

The method of recruitment, age limit, qualification and other matters relating to the said post shall be as specified in columns 6 to 13 of the Schedule aforesaid.

4.      Disqualification:-
No Person -
(a)    Who has entered into or contracted a marriage with a person having a spouse living, or
(b)    Who, having a spouse living, has entered into or contracted a marriage with any person, shall be eligible for appointment to the said post:

Provided that the Central Government may, if satisfied at such a marriage is permissible under the personal law applicable to such person and the other party to the marriage and that there are other grounds for so doing, exempt any person from the operation of this rule.

5.      Power to relax:-  Where the Central Government is of opinion that it is necessary or expedient so to do, it may, by order, for reasons to be recorded in writing relax any of the provisions of these rules with respect to any class or category of persons.

6.       Savings:-  Nothing in these rules shall affect reservations, relaxation of age limit and other concessions required to be provided for the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and other special categories of persons in accordance with the orders issued by the Central Government from time to time in this regard.



NOTIFICATION
New Delhi, the 28th April, 2014
            G.S.R. 86.- In exercise of the powers conferred by the proviso to the article 309 of the Constitution and in supersession of the Central Government Health Scheme Delhi, (Group ‘C’) Ayurvedic Recruitment Rules, 1978, except as respects things done or omitted to be done before such supersession, the President hereby makes the following rules regulating the method of recruitment to the post of  Ayurvedic Pharmacist in the Central Govt. Health Scheme, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, namely:-
            1.         Short title and commitment.- (1) These rules may be called the Central Government Health Scheme organization, Ayurvedic Pharmacist (Group ‘C’ Post) Recruitment Rules, 2014.
            (2)        They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Official Gazette.
            2.         Number of post, classification, pay band and grade pay or pay scale.- The number of the said post, its classification and pay band and grade pay or pay scale attached thereto shall be as specified in columns (2) to (4) of the Schedule annexed to these rules..
            3.         Method of recruitment, age-limit, qualification, etc.- The method of recruitment, age-limit, qualifications and the other matters relating to the said post shall be specified in columns (5) to (13) of the aforesaid Schedule.
            4.         Disqualification.- No person,-
            (a)        who  has entered into or contracted a marriage with a           person having a spouse living; or
            (b)        who, having a spouse living, has entered into or        contracted a    marriage with any person,
Shall be eligible for appointment to the said post:
            Provided that the Central Government may, if satisfied that such a marriage is permissible under the personal law applicable to such person and the other party to the marriage and that there are other grounds for so doing, exempt any person from the operation of this rule.
            5.         Power to relax.- Where the Central Government is of the opinion that it is necessary or expedient so to do, it may, by order, for reasons to be recorded in writing, relax any of the provisions of these rules with respect to any class or category of persons.
            6.         Savings.- Nothing in these rules shall affect reservation, relaxation of age-limit and other concessions required to be provided for the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, the other Backward Classes, the Ex-servicemen and other special categories of persons in accordance with the orders issued by the Central Government from time to time in this regard.


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Registration of Slaughter Houses with FSSAI

Work relating to registration of slaughter houses is handled by the States. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) issues licenses when these fall in its domain. State-wise details regarding the number of licenses issued by FSSAI to slaughter houses are indicated below:-

Licenses issued by FSSAI to slaughter houses
Sl. No. Name of the State License Central
1 Andhra Pradesh 1
2 A & N Islands 0
3 Arunachal Pradesh 0
4 Assam 1
5 Bihar 1
6 Chandigarh 0
7 Chhattisgarh 0
8 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 0
9 Daman & Diu 0
10 Delhi 1
11 Goa 1
12 Gujarat 0
13 Haryana 4
14 Himachal Pradesh 1
15 Jammu & Kashmir 0
16 Jharkhand 0
17 Karnataka 4
18 Kerala 3
19 Lakshadweep 0
20 Madhya Pradesh 0
21 Maharashtra 8
22 Meghalaya 0
23 Manipur 0
24 Mizoram 0
25 Nagaland 0
26 Odisha 0
27 Puducherry 0
28 Punjab 7
29 Rajasthan 0
30 Sikkim 0
31 Tamil Nadu 4
32 Telangana 2
33 Tripura 0
34 Uttar Pradesh 20
35 Uttarakhand 0
36 West Bengal 4
  Total 62

The Government has, with a view to ensure that all slaughter houses operate with valid licenses, taken up the matter with the Chief Secretaries and Secretaries of Urban Local Bodies of the States/Union Territories and other concerned authorities inviting their attention to the legal provisions in this behalf. The need for effective regulation of slaughter houses was taken up as an agenda item in the last meeting of the Central Advisory Committee comprising the Food Safety Commissioners of states. Attention of the State/ UT governments has also been invited to the species of animals which are permissible for slaughtering as per sub regulation 2.5.1 of the Food Safety and Standards (Food Products Standards & Food Additives) Regulations, 2011 as under viz: 1) Ovines, 2) Caprines, 3) Suillines, 4) Bovines, 5) And includes poultry & fish. Regular surveillance, monitoring and inspection are undertaken by States/UT governments under FSS Act, 2006 to check compliance of the related rules and regulations.


The Health Minister, Shri J P Nadda stated this in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha here today.


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Revision of National Health Policy

The health status of the population especially that of rural population requires improvement. However, the condition of the health services in rural areas of the country has improved after the launch of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM).

As per National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) 2004-05, the health worker density in rural areas is 11.74 per 10,000 populations while in urban areas, the density is 40.46 per 10,000 populations. As per the 2011 National Health Profile, there are 1, 60,862 hospital beds in rural areas out of the total 7, 84,940 hospital beds available in the country.

Public health being a state subject, the primary responsibility to provide health care facilities lies with the state governments. To address the healthcare challenges, particularly in rural areas, the NRHM was launched in 2005 to supplement the efforts of the State/UT governments to provide accessible, affordable and quality healthcare. The NRHM has now been subsumed under the National Health Mission (NHM) as its sub-mission, along with National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) as the other sub-mission.

Under NRHM, high focus States that are economically and socially backward and have poor health indices are provided with higher per capita allocation as compared to rest of the states. Further, within the States, to ensure equitable healthcare and to bring about sharper improvements in health outcomes, a systematic effort to effectively address the intrastate disparities in health outcomes has been undertaken. At least 25% of all districts in each state have been identified as “High Priority Districts” based on a composite health index. All tribal districts which are below the state’s average of composite health index have also been included as high priority districts. These districts receive higher per capita funding, enhanced monitoring and focused supportive supervision, and are supported to adopt innovative approaches to address their special healthcare challenges.

Under NHM, financial support is provided to States to strengthen their health care systems including support for infrastructure, equipment, human resource and other resources based on the requirements posed by the States in their Programme Implementation Plans. Besides the support for medical human resource, support is also provided for programme managers, finance managers and accountants, data managers etc for effective programme implementation.

The draft National Health policy, 2015 has been placed in public domain seeking suggestions from stakeholders.

The Health Minister, Shri J P Nadda stated this in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha here today.

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Side-Effects of Harmful Radiation from Mobile Phones and Towers

The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has informed that in a number of studies it has been reported that exposure to radiation from mobile phones causes adverse health effects. But there is no conclusive data available so far on this issue, however the growing body of scientific evidences indicates some bio-effects and possible adverse health effects of Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR) which merit further investigations. Even the World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) after reviewing the studies published from year 2000 to 31st  May 2011 classified the radio frequency electromagnetic radiations/field emitted from wireless phone under group 2 B-carcinogen category. Due to this fact numbers of countries have developed health based precautionary guidelines for exposure of EMF from cell phone towers including India.

The ICMR has further informed that there is no scientific confirmed evidence that use of mobile phones causes mental and physical diseases. There is no proven scientific evidence yet to suggest that electromagnetic radiations emitted from mobile phone may lead to cancer, tumour, mental imbalance, dementia, headache and even it can damage DNA of a person.

The ICMR is conducting a multi-disciplinary cohort study in Delhi & National Capital Region (NCR) to find out adverse effects of Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR), if any, emitted from cell phone on adult Indian population. Under this study specific absorption rate, power density, wave length and frequency of RFR emitted from various types of cell phones used by the enrolled subjects as well as from cell phone towers installed at various places in Delhi are measured. The physical characteristics of RFR emitted from various cell phones will be correlated with the clinical & laboratory findings to examine whether use of cell phone is associated with reproductive dysfunctions, male infertility, neurological disorders (cognitive behavior, sleep related disorders, depression etc.), cardiovascular disorders, Otorhinolaryngology (ENT) disorders and promote cancer if any, in Human Volunteers.

In addition to the above, the ICMR has also funded few studies on limited basis in India to address this issue. The summary of the finding of the studies conducted in India in this area given below:-

Studies are being conducted in India on the issues related to Health effects of Radiations emitted from mobile Phone & mobile Phone Tower

1.         Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar has conducted number ca studies in this area both on animals and human volunteers. Study reported cytogenetic damage in tissues of some individuals using cell phones over a period of time. The data revealed increaser number of micro nucleated buccal cells and cytological abnormalities in cultured lymphocytes indicating the genotoxic response from mobile phone use. As exposure to radiofrequency radiations has been reported to affect physiological, neurological, cognitive and behavioural changes and to induce, initiate and promote carcinogenesis; threat to human health has been suggested for mobile phone users (Gandhi et al. 2005).

2.         In one of the study a correlation between mobile phone use (exposure to radio frequency radiations) and DNA and chromosomal damage in lymphocytes of individuals using mobile phones was observed which may have long-term consequences in terms of neoplasia and/or age-related changes (Gandhi & Anita, 2007).

3.         The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) supported an animal study (2005-08) to find out the effect of RFR on male reproduction at Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) New Delhi. The results indicated significant reduction in testicular size, weight and in sperm counts. The data also indicated that the chronic exposure to Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR) imitated from cell phone causes a significant decrease in protein kinase C and total sperm count along with increase apoptosis in male rat. The study suggested that decrease in sperm count and increase in apoptosis may be a causative factor due to mobile radiation exposure leading to infertility (Kesari & Behari, 2008).

4.         National Institute of Technology (NIT), Calicut, Kerala, has reported headache, dizziness, numbness in the thigh, and heaviness in the chest among mobile phone users. The results indicated an increase in the both parameters when mobile phone is kept close to chest and a decrease when kept close to the head. Mobile phone has caused changes in Heart Rate Variability indices and the change varied with its position. But these observations were not significant in comparison to without mobile condition (Ahmed et al, 2008).

5.         PGIMER, Chandigarh, has conducted a study (Panda et al. 2010) and reported tong term and intensive mobile phone use may cause inner ear damage and based on their observations they have recommended following criteria`s for the release of harmful rays from mobile phones.

a)      Mobile phones should not be used continuously for more than one hour in a day.
b)      Hands free technology to be used where excessive use of the mobile phone is unavoidable. This includes use of microphones and Bluetooth so that the handset remains away from the ear and thus avoids the direct impact of harmful electromagnetic radiations on the ear and the brain.
c)      People to avoid long talks and discussions on mobile phones as far as possible.

6.         In another study a significant increase in peak heart rate, serum total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentration were noticed in acute RFR exposed male students in comparison to control students (Parkar et. al., 2010).

7.         Author examined biological effects of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation in Parker strain mice, Locomotor activity was recorded on running wheel for 12 days prior to microwave exposure (pre-exposure), 7 days during the first week of exposure (short-term exposure) and another 7-day split during the last week of the 30-day exposure period (long-term exposure). Microwave radiations caused an increase in erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, a significant DNA strand break in brain cells and the loss of spatial memory in mice. This report for the first time provides experimental evidence that continuous exposure to low intensity microwave radiation may have an adverse effect on the brain function by altering circadian system and rate of DNA damage (C. M. Chaturvedi et al. 2011).

8.         Another study concluded that Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species ad reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility (Sanjay Kumar et. al. 2011).

9.         The study was taken to estimate the microwave/RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities near schools and hospitals of Chandigarh city in India. The cell phone radiations were measured using a handheld portable power density meter TES 593 and specific absorption rates were estimated from the measured values. These values of electromagnetic radiation in the environment were compared with the levels at which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The values were also compared with the international exposure limits set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The highest measured power density was 11.48 mW/m (2) which is 1,148% of the biological limit. The results indicated that the exposure levels in the city were below the ICNIRP limit, but much above the biological limit (Dhami 2011).

10.       To study the pathophysiology of microwave radiations and its effect on rat brain, a study was conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. The study indicated that a reduction in melatonin or an increase in caspase-3, creatine kinase, and calcium ion may cause significant damage in brain due to chronic exposure of these radiations. These biomarkers clearly indicate possible health implications of such exposures (Kesari et. al. 2012).

11.       The present study summarizes the public issue based on mobile phone radiation exposure and their biological effects. This review concludes that the regular and long term use of microwave devices (mobile phone, microwave oven) at domestic level can have negative impact upon biological system especially on brain. It also suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role by enhancing the effect of microwave radiations which may cause neurodegenerative diseases (Kesari et al., 2013).

12.       A specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements system has been developed for compliance testing of personal mobile phone in a brain phantom material contained in a Perspex box. The volume of the box has been chosen corresponding to the volume of a small rat and illuminated by a 3G mobile phone frequency (1718.5 MHz), and the emitted radiation directed toward brain phantom. The induced fields in the phantom material are measured. Set up to lift the plane carrying the mobile phone is run by a pulley whose motion is controlled by a stepper motor. The platform is made to move at a pre-determined rate of 2 degrees per min limited up to 20 degrees. The measured date for induced fields in various locations are used to compute corresponding SAR values and inter-comparison obtained. These data are also compared with those when the mobile phone is placed horizontally with respect to the position of the animal. The SAR data is also experimentally obtained by measuring a rise in temperature due to this mobile exposures and data compared with those obtained in the previous set. To seek a comparison with the safety criteria same set of measurements are performed in 10 g phantom material contained in a cubical box. These results are higher than those obtained with the knowledge of induced field measurements. It is conclude that SAR values are sensitive to the angular position of the moving platform and are well below the safety criteria prescribed tor human exposure. The data are suggestive of having a fresh look to understand the mode of electromagnetic field -bio interaction (Behari et al 2013)

13.       Electromagnetic radiations are reported to produce long-term and short-term biological-effects, which are of great concern to human health due to increasing use of devices emitting EMIR especially microwave (MW) radiation in our daily life. In view of the unavoidable use of MW emitting devices (microwaves oven, mobile phones, Wi-Fi, etc.) and their harmful effects on biological system, it was thought worthwhile to investigate the long-term effects of low-level MW irradiation on the reproductive function of male Swiss strain mice and its mechanism of action. Twelve-week-old mice were exposed to non-thermal low-level 2.45- GHz MW radiation (CW for 2 h/day for 30 days, power density = 0.029812 mW/cm (2) and SAR = 0.018 W/Kg). Sperm count and sperm viability test were done as well as vital organs were processed to study different stress parameters. Plasma was used for testosterone and testis for 3β HSD assay_ Immunohistochemistry of 3β HSD and nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) was also performed in testis, We observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels was also noted in the exposed group of mice. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW-irradiated group of mice. Further, these adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to nonionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway (Shahin et al. 2014).

14.       Cell phone radiation exposure and its biological interaction is the present concern of debate. Present study aimed to investigate the effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on 45-day-old male Wistar rat brain. Animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 60 days by using mobile phone with angular movement up to zero to 30°. The variation of the motor is restricted to 90° with respect to the horizontal plane, moving at a pre-determined rate of 2° per minute. Immediately after 60 days of exposure, animals were scarified and numbers of parameters (DNA double-strand break, micronuclei, caspase 3, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, expression of Stress-responsive genes) were performed. Result shows that microwave radiation emitted from 3G mobile phone significantly induced DNA strand breaks in brain. Meanwhile a significant increase in micronuclei, caspase 3 and apoptosis were also observed in exposed group (P < 0.05), Western blotting result shows that 3G mobile phone exposure causes a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, hsp70, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated cytochrome c release and subsequent activation of caspases involved in the process of radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Study shows that the oxidative stress is the main factor which activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK is the pathway of principle stress response. Results conclude that 3G mobile phone radiations affect the brain function and cause several neurological disorders (Kesari et. al. 2014).

15.       Present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin (is well known antioxidant that protects DNA, lipids and proteins from free radical damage) against oxidative stress-mediated testicular impairment due to long-term exposure of MWs. For this, 70-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6/group), Sham exposed, Mel atonin (Mel) treated (2 mg/kg), 2.45 GHz MWs exposed and MWs + Mel treated. Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 45 days where, power density (0.21 mW/cm(2)) and specific absorption rate (SAR 0.14 W/Kg) were estimated. After the completion of exposure period, rats were sacrificed and various stress related parameters, that is LDH-X (lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme) activity, xanthine oxidase (XO), RCS (reactive oxygen species), protein carbonyl content, DNA damage and MDA (malondialdehyde) were performed. Result shows that melatonin prevent oxidative damage biochemically by significant increase (p <0.001) in the levels of testicular LDH-X, decreased (p< 0.001) levels of MDA and ROS in testis (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, it reversed the effects of MWs on XO, protein carbonyl content, sperm count, testosterone level and DNA fragmentation in testicular cells. These results concluded that the melatonin has strong antioxidative potential against MW induced oxidative stress mediated DNA damage in testicular cells (Meena et. al., 2014).

References:

1.      Gandhi G, Singh P (2005). Cytogenetic damage in mobile phone users: Preliminary data titled Hum Genet 5(4): 259-265.
2.      Gandhi G, Anita (2007). Genetic damage in mobile phone users. Some preliminary findings Int J Hum Genet 11(2): 99-104.
3.      Kesari KK and Behan J (2008), Comparative study of 900 MHz and 2.45 GHz radiation effect on reproductive system of male rats. In Recent Advances and Challenges in Reproductive; Health Research, eds. R S Sharma et al, pp 363-377.
4.      Ahamed VI, Karthick NG, Joseph PK (2008), Effect of mobile phone radiation on heart rate variability, Comput Biol. Med. 35(6): 709-12.
5.      Panda et al (2010). Audiologic disturbances in long-term mobile phone users, J Otolaryngo Head neck Surg., Chandigarh, 1; 39(1):5-11.
6.      Parkar MA, Ahmed R, Abdullah BB, Patil BS, Das KK (2010). Effect of cell phone exposure on physiologic and hematologic parameters of male medical students of Bijapur (Karnataka) With reference to serum lipid profile. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol.; 21(2): 201-10.
7.      C. M. Chaturvedi, V. P. Singh, P. Singh, P. Basu and M. Singaravel (2011). 2.45 ghz (Cw) Microwave Irradiation Alters Circadian Organization, Spatial Memoiy, Dna Structure In the Brain Cells And Blood Cell Counts Of Male Mice, Mus Musculus Electromagnetic Research B, Vol. 29, 23-42.
8.      Sanjay Kumar, Kavindra Kumar Kesari, Jitendra Behan (2011). The. therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of mate Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field. CLINICS 2011; 66(7):1237-1245.
9.      Dhami AK (2011). Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in an Indian city. Environ. monit Assess: 84(11): 6507-12.
10.  Kesari KK, Kumar S, Behari J (2012). Pathophysiology of microwave radiation: effect on rat brain. Appl Biochern Biote-chnol; 166(2):379-88
11.  Behari J, Nirala JP (2013), Specific absorption rate variation in a brain phantom due to exposure by a 3G mobile phone: problems in dosimetry. Indian J Exp Biol.; 51(12):1079-85.
12.  Kesari KK, Siddiqui MH, Meena R, Verma HN, Kumar S (2013), Cell phone radiation exposure on brain and associated biological systems, Indian J Exp Bid,; 51(3):187-200.
13.   Shahin S, Mishra V, Singh SP, Chaturvedi CM (2014), 2.45-GHz microwave irradiation adversely affects reproductive function in male mouse, Mus musculus by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stress. Free Radic Res.; 48(5):511-25.
14.  Kesari KK, Meena R, Wirala. J, Kumar J, Verma HN (2014), Effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway in rat brain. Cell Biochem Biophys.; 68(2); 347-58.
15.  Meena R, Kumari K. Kumar 3, Rajamani P, Verma HN, Kesari KK (2014), Therapeutic approaches of melatonin in microwave radiations-induced oxidative stress-mediated toxicity on male fertility pattern of Wistar rats, Electroniagn Bid Fled.; 33(2):81-91.

The MoS, Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Shri Shripad Yesso Naik stated this in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha here yesterday.

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Effective Implementation of PNDT Act


The Government has adopted a multi-pronged strategy including schemes and programmes and awareness generation/advocacy measures to build a positive environment for the girl child through gender sensitive policies, provisions and legislation. The measures include the following:-

·           Intensified effective implementation of the Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994 and amended various provisions of the Rules, viz.  programme review at the state level. Five regional review workshops for North, West, central, north east and Southern regions were organized at Srinagar, Pune, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Bhopal during 2013-14 to evaluate and review the progress of implementation of the PC&PNDT Act, 1994 in the country. During the current financial year 2014-15, four review workshops for North, West, north east and Southern regions were organized.

·     The Government provides financial support to the States and UTs for operationalization of PNDT Cells, Capacity Building, Orientation & Sensitization Workshop, Information, Education and Communication campaigns and for strengthening structures for the implementation of the PC & PNDT Act, 1994 under the National Health Mission (NHM).

·     The Minister of Health and Family Welfare has requested all the State Governments to strengthen implementation of the Act and to ensure timely steps to stop illegal sex determination.

·        Directions given vide Order dated 04.03.2013 by the Hon’ble Supreme Court in the matter of WP(C) 349/2006 were communicated to the States/ UTs at the level of Health Minister to Chief Ministers and Chief Secretaries to ensure immediate compliance.


·      Inspections by the National Inspection and Monitoring Committee (NIMC) have been scaled up. In year 2014-15, 16 inspection visits were undertaken in the States of Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Delhi (Twice), Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Manipur, Jharkhand, Tamilnadu and Gujarat.


·           States have been advised to focus on Districts/Blocks/Villages with low Child Sex Ratio to ascertain the causes, plan appropriate Behaviour Change Communication campaigns and effectively implement provisions of the PC & PNDT Act, 1994.

The Central Supervisory Board (CSB) was constituted by the government under Section 7 of the Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994, with the mandate to review and monitor implementation of the Act and rules made there under. A total of 22 meetings of the CSB were held since inception of the Act to review the implementation of the Act.

 As per Reports submitted by States/ UTs, a total number of 206 convictions have so far been secured under the Act. The year-wise details of conviction, maintained since 2009 and the details of total conviction as furnished by States/UTs are given below:-



Note: Total 180 convictions were secured since 2009 out of total 206; remaining 26 were secured before 2009.

Total convictions under PC & PNDT Act (up to December, 2014)

As per Quarterly Progress Reports (QPRs) submitted by States/ UTs,  A total of 295 court cases for non-registration of clinics have been filed by the concerned Appropriate Authorities under the Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994.

Directions given vide Order dated 04.03.2013 by the Hon’ble Supreme Court in the matter of Voluntary Health Association of Punjab vs UoI were communicated to the States/ UTs at the level of Union Health Minister and Secretary, Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India to Chief Ministers and Chief Secretaries respectively to ensure immediate compliance.



The Health Minister, Shri J P Nadda stated this in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha here today.


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Improvement of Service Conditions of Nurses

Health being a state subject, the matter regarding working conditions of nursing staff comes under the purview of the state government in which the hospitals are located. On the basis of PIL Writ Petition Civil No. 430/2011 in the Hon’ble Supreme Court, all the state governments were issued instructions vide letters dated 7th July, 2010 and 24th February, 2012 to take necessary measures for enacting a comprehensive legislation for improvement of service conditions of nurses including those working in the private sector.

The Health Minister, Shri J P Nadda stated this in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha here today.

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Compensation to Clinical Trial Volunteers


In terms of the provisions of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 as amended from time to time, every company or sponsor permitted to conduct Clinical Trials is required to pay compensation in all cases of Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) of injury or death, related to Clinical Trial. As per information available with the Government, compensation in only three cases of SAEs of death related to Clinical Trial, one each for the years 2005, 2006 and 2010 has not been paid as the whereabouts of the legal heir could not be located. The details of compensation paid in 2013 and 2014 in clinical trial related cases of SAEs of death are given below:-


Details of Compensation Paid in Clinical Trial related cases of SAEs of Death

Year 2013




Details of Compensation Paid in Clinical Trial related cases of SAEs of Death
Year 2014





Rules 122DA, 122DAA, 122DAB, 122DAC, 122DD and 122E of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 specify the requirements for conducting clinical trials in India.  Further, Schedule-Y of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 prescribes the responsibilities of the Sponsor, Investigator and Ethics Committee to protect the rights, safety and well-being of clinical trial subjects. The measures taken in the recent past to strengthen the regulation of clinical trials include evaluation of the clinical trial proposals by the Subject Expert Committees/ Investigational New Drugs Committee, review of their recommendations by the Technical Committee and, thereafter, approval by the Apex Committee. Amendments have also been made in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 for safeguarding the rights, safety and well-being of trial subjects. Compensation is accordingly required to be paid in case of trial related injury or death within the prescribed timelines. Conditions such as requirements and guidelines for registration of the Ethics Committee have also been specified. It has been made mandatory for the sponsor or his representatives to furnish the details of the contract entered by the sponsor with the investigator with regard to financial support, fees, honorarium, payments, etc. Further, it has also been decided that with effect from 30.11.2013, in all clinical trials, in addition to the requirement of obtaining written informed consent, audio-visual informed consent will also be recorded in respect of each trial subject.


The Health Minister, Shri J P Nadda stated this in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha here today.

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