Research Publications

Research Publications

The Department of Science and Technology (DST) commissioned study 2012, India’s research publications, during the last decade, remained far ahead of many developing countries such as Brazil, South Africa and Iran etc. It surpassed countries like Russia in 2005, Australia and Korea in 2007.

The Government has taken various measures for the promotion and growth of scientific research in the country. These measures include successive increase in plan allocations for Scientific Departments, setting up of new institutions for science education and research, creation of centres of excellence for research and facilities in emerging and frontline Science and Technology (S&T) areas in academic and national institutes, establishment of new and attractive fellowships, strengthening infrastructure for Research and Development (R&D) in universities, encouraging public-private R&D partnerships, recognition of R&D units and national awards for outstanding R&D for industries etc.

This information was given today by Minister of Science and Technology and Earth Sciences Dr. Harsh Vardhan in a written reply to Lok Sabha question.
Science Express Special Train

            Science Express - Biodiversity Special (SEBS) is an innovative mobile exhibition mounted on a specially designed 16 coach AC train, travelling across India since June 5 2012. SEBS is a unique collaborative initiative of Department of Science & Technology (DST) and Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Government of India and Indian Railways.

Objective:  the state-of-the-art exhibition aboard the SEBS aims to create awareness on biodiversity of India, climate change and similar issues among various sections of the society including school and college students, teachers as well as common man.

     Of the 16 coaches of the SEBS, eight are solely dedicated to showcasing the myriad biodiversity spread across the bio-geographical zones of India. These include Trans-Himalaya and the Himalayas, the Gangetic Plain, North East India, the Desert and the Semi-Arid Zone, the Western Ghats, the Deccan Peninsula, the Coasts and the Islands. The exhibition also covers various other facets like marine, coastal, forest, microbial, agro-biodiversity and their linkage with livelihoods besides challenges of conservation. In rest of the rake, there is an exhibition on themes like Climate Change, Water, Sustainable Environment and Energy Conservation. In one coach, a Kids Zone has been created for kids, to indulge in fun-filled activities, games and puzzles in science, mathematics and environment. Further, the popular Joy of Science (JOS) Hands-on Lab is put up in another dedicated coach. In this mobile lab, students can perform various experiments and activities to understand concepts in environment and science in an interesting manner. SEBS halts at each station for 3-4 days and the team of well-qualified, trained and highly motivated Science Communicators travelling with the train explains and interprets the exhibition, answer queries, facilitate the visitors and conduct complementary activities. There is no entry fee and the exhibition is open to all. SEBS has been visited by over 60 lakh visitors at 148 halts till date, since its launch on 5 June 2012. More information is available on the website

 Science Express Biodiversity Special has covered the following cities during its run in all the three phases:-

SEBS Phase – I (5 June 2012 – 22 Dec 2012):

Delhi Safdarjung , Patna, Rangiya, Mariani, Dibrugarh, Dimapur, Kamakhya, Siliguri, Malda Town, Howrah, Dhanbad, Ranchi, Rourkela, Sambalpur, Cuttack, Berhampur, Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Nellore, Chennai Central, Kudal Nagar, Kanyakumari, Ernakulam, Kozhikode, Madgaon, Hubli, Bellary, Khadki, Mumbai CST, Habibganj, MadanMahal, Nagpur, Kazipet, Secunderabad, Sewagram, Durg, Bilaspur, Gaya, Gorakhpur Cantt., Lucknow, Haridwar, Chandigarh, Ambala Cantt., Udhampur, Ferozpur City, Bhatinda, Delhi Cantt., Durgapura Jaipur, Bhagat Ki kothi (Jodhpur), Barmer, Ahmedebad, Gandhinagar.

SEBS Phase – II (9 April 2013 – 28 Oct 2013)

Delhi Safdarjung, Pragati Maidan, Patiala, Jalandhar City, Verka, Pathankot, Bajalata (J&K), Amb Andura, Ambala Cantt., Haridwar, Bareilly, Azamgarh, Mughal Sarai, Bhagalpur, Katihar, Purnea, Bagdogra, Alipur Duar, Lumbding, New Tinsukia, Dimapur, New Bongaigaon, New Coochbehar, New Farrakka, Raniganj, Joichandi Pahar, Sini, Kharagpur, Balasore, Cuttack, Balangir, Kakinada, Tirupati, Chennai Central, Cuddalore Port, Tiruchirapally, Kudalnagar, Trivendrum, Alapuzha, Coimbatore, Kozikhode, Kannur, Madgaon, Miraj, Maltekdi, Aurangabad, Valsad, Navsari, Vadodara, Ujjain, Kota, Daurai (Ajmer), Marwar, Abu Road, Linch (Nr. Mehsana), Bhaktinagar (Rajkot), Junagadh, Bhavnagar, Adraj Moti ( Nr. Gandhinagar), Gandhinagar Capital.

SEBS Phase – III (28 July 2014 – 6 Feb 2015)

Delhi Safdarjung, Kurukshetra, Ludhiana, Ramnagar (J&K), Bajalta, Tarn Taran, Roorkee, Meerut Cant., Najibabad, Lalkuan, Shahjahanpur, Unnao, Basti, Ghazipur City, Sonpur, Thakurganj, Fakiragram, Lumding, New Mal, Eklakhi, Barasat (Nr. Kolkata), Chakradharpur, Bilaspur, Katni Murwara, Saugor, Amravati, Kumhari, Titlagarh, Guntur, Dharmawaram, Whitefiled, Jolapettai, Salem Town, Thanjavur, Erode, Thrissur, Kollam, Shoranur, Kasaragod, Dharwad, Karad, Khadki ( Pune), Nasik Road, Ratlam, Chittorgarh, Sawai Madhopur, Hisar, Ratangarh, Lalgarh (Nr. Bikaner), Degana, Samdari, Ghandhidham, Wankaner, Dhrangadhra, Viramgam, Gandhinagar Capital.

            The desert areas (including Jodhpur) are extensively covered by the Science Express Biodiversity Special exhibition train. However, Pali has not been touched so far.

            SEBS has so far visited the following cities in Rajasthan:-

Durgapura (Jaipur)                              :           06 – 09 Dec 2012

Bhagat Ki Kothi (Jodhpur)                 :           10 – 13 Dec 2012

Barmer                                                 :          14 – 17 Dec 2012

Kota                                                    :           03 – 06 Oct 2013

Daurai (Nr. Ajmer)                              :           07 – 09 Oct 2013

Marwar                                                :           10 – 12 Oct 2013

Abu Road                                           :           13 – 16 Oct 2013

SEBS is scheduled to cover following cities in Rajasthan in the current phase:-

Chittourgarh                                        :           29 Dec 2014 to 1 Jan 2015

Sawai Madhopur                                 :           02 - 05 Jan 2015

Ratangarh                                            :           10 - 12 Jan 2015

Lalgarh (Nr. Bikaner)                          :           13 & 15 Jan 2015

Degana                                                 :          16 - 19 Jan 2015        

Samdari                                                :          20 - 22 Jan 2015

               This information was given today by Minister of Science and Technology and Earth Sciences Dr. Harsh Vardhan in a written reply to Lok Sabha question.
Use of Hindi

Feasible efforts are made to extend information on new scientific inventions and new technologies for the benefit of the Hindi speaking people.

The Ministry of Science and Technology continues to make progressive use of Hindi in Official work as per the Annual Programme issued by the Department of Official Language, Ministry of Home Affairs and the Official Language Policy of the Union. In pursuance of this policy, all documents covered under section 3(3) of the Official Language Act, 1963 are being issued both in English and Hindi and in terms of Rule 5 of the Official Languages Rules, 1976 all letters received in Hindi are being replied to in Hindi. Issuance of correspondence in Hindi to Central Government Offices located in Region `A`, `B` and `C `, purchase of valuable Hindi books, training in Hindi, inspection of field offices, and translation of manual/forms are being done as per the targets set in the Annual Programme. An Action Plan based on the checkpoints identified in the Ministry has been prepared to encourage usage of Hindi so as to comply with the provisions of the official language policy. Annual Programme and other orders/instructions issued by the Department of Official Language are forwarded to all Subordinate/Attached Offices/Autonomous Organizations for compliance. In order to encourage the use of Hindi in official work amongst officers/ employees of the Ministry, a Hindi fortnight is organized in the Ministry every year in the month of September. During this pakhwara many competitions are organized and successful participants are awarded with Cash Prizes and Certificates. To monitor implementation of Official Language Policy more effectively, quarterly meetings of the Official Language implementation committee are being held regularly in the Ministry.

Programmes to popularize science and technology are being organized throughout the country in Hindi as well as in the regional languages. Radio serials through AIR are developed, produced and broadcast in Hindi. Books titled "Bharat mei Samudri Bhu Vigyan ka Itihas`` and "Sab tak pahuchnna hai" and Hindi journals like "Vigyan Pragati", "Khanan Manjusha", "Vigyan Vaani", "Electronic Jyoti", "Aavishkar" and "Dream 2047" have helped in bringing knowledge and updates regarding scientific activities occurring throughout the world to the Hindi speaking people at large.

This information was given today by Minister of Science and Technology and Earth Sciences Dr. Harsh Vardhan in a written reply to Lok Sabha question.
Arsenic Contents in Rice Varieties

The CSIR has found that some rice varieties accumulate arsenic contents from the soil, the consumption of which is dangerous for human health.

Constituent laboratory of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR-NBRI), Lucknow in collaboration with Rice Research Station, Chinsurah, Hoogly, has found rice cultivars accumulating low arsenic. The development is based on screening of rice germplasm from West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and other sources. On the cultivars, field trials have been conducted in arsenic affected areas of West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. The arsenic content in the rice grain has been found in permissible limits, thus safe for human consumption. For the arsenic contaminated agri zones, cultivation of oil seed crops and pulses have been recommended. Further, CSIR laboratories namely Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute (CSIR-CGCRI), Kolkata, Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute (CSIR-CSMCRI), Bhavnagar and National Geophysical Research Institute (CSIR-NGRI), Hyderabad have developed technologies for the removal of arsenic from ground water, so as to enhance portability of water.

This information was given today by Minister of Science and Technology and Earth Sciences Dr. Harsh Vardhan in a written reply to Lok Sabha question.
Development of Drugs

Indian pharmaceutical industry has witnessed a robust growth over the past few years moving on from a turnover of approx. US $ 1 billion in 1990 to over US $ 20 billion in 2010 of which the export turnover is approximately US $ 8 billion*. As per the report on R&D Scenario in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry prepared by Research and Information System for Developing Countries an autonomous think tank under the Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi, Indian pharmaceutical industries spent 5 % of its sales turn over in R&D in the year 2011 as compared to 1% in 1994-95. The industry ranks 3rd in terms of volume and is 14th in terms of value globally. India has a large branded generics market which enables most companies to launch their version of a generic drug in the market place. Several Government institutions like CSIR and ICMR labs, companies, nongovernmental organizations and academic institutes are undertaking drug discovery and research in the country. The areas of research undertaken by these companies and institutions include, anti-cancer, anti-tuberculosis, cardiovascular, anti diabetic, vaccines and other biologicals etc.

Government has taken several steps for strengthening Research & Development in pharmaceuticals sector through fiscal incentives to R&D units, streamlining of procedures concerning development of new drug molecules, clinical research and new drug delivery systems leading to new R&D set-ups with excellent infrastructure in the field of original drug discovery.

The Department of Science & Technology is supporting drug research through Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Research Programme. This programme supports industry institutional collaborative R&D projects, creating state-of-the-art national facilities in research laboratories and academic institutions and soft loan with a simple interest of 3% per annum to pharma industry R&D projects and grant-in-aid to industries in clinical trials for neglected diseases.

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has been pursuing R&D activities in the domain of drugs and pharmaceuticals with the focus on affordable healthcare. In doing so, CSIR’s efforts are focused on understanding the disease biology; disease diagnostics; high end chemistry based process development for generic drugs; and creating innovative platforms for enhancing the innovation in the domain. The disease area covered includes tuberculosis, malaria, leishmania, cancer diabetes, neurodegenerative disease, bone fracture, reproductive dysfunction and contraceptives. CSIR efforts are also for preventive health and disease management, development of next generation bio-therapeutics, understanding the mechanism of complex diseases, system based drug design, stem cell biology and regenerative medicine and understanding bio-energetic disorders. CSIR is also undertaking activities under Open Source Drug Discovery programme to address the problems related to drug discovery for tuberculosis.

Department of Bio Technology (DBT) has supported a Drug Discovery Research Centre at the Translational Health Science & Technology Institute, Gurgaon. This Centre serves as a technology-intensive base which can spur the human health-related research activities in the country. In addition DBT has also supported through its Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC) – a public sector unit, various public-private partnership schemes viz. Biotechnology Industry Partnership Programme (BIPP), Biotechnology Ignition Grant (BIG) and Small Business Innovation Research Initiative (SBIRI) in the drug discovery and research right from identification of molecules, characterization and taking them further.

Department of Pharmaceuticals has a vision for the promotion of Indian Pharmaceutical Industry through development of human resources , creation of infrastructure and public-private partnership, promote pharma brand India by international cooperation, development of environmentally sustainable industry, enable availability, accessibility and affordability of drugs. In addition, the Department has approved the establishment of National Centre for Research and Development in Bulk Drug (NCRDBD) at National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and with Research (NIPER), Hyderabad at a total cost of Rs. 54.20 Crore along with operating cost of Rs. 37.43 Crore.

The Govt. of India has taken an initiative through its constituent Department of Pharmaceuticals for setting up of Venture Capital Fund (VCF) for supporting pharmaceutical research infrastructure development. The Department has engaged National Institute of Public Finance Policy (NIPFP) to prepare a Detailed Project Report (DPR) for setting up venture capital fund. The Department has invited the suggestions from pharma industry, financial institutions and other stake holders on the DPR.

This information was given today by Minister of Science and Technology and Earth Sciences Dr. Harsh Vardhan in a written reply to Lok Sabha question.
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