PER Capita Income of Tribals, Schemes, Coaching for Students and Schools



PER Capita Income of Tribals

                    As per the estimates of poverty ratio of the Planning Commission, the percentage of STs living below the poverty line has come down from 62.3% in rural areas during 2004-05 to 45.3% during 2011-12.  In the urban areas, the percentage of STs living below the poverty line has come down from 35.5% during 2004-05 to 24.1% during 2011-12.



                   The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation collects data on the household consumer expenditure but not on income in their household surveys. The Planning Commission estimates poverty ratios for the years for which household consumer expenditure surveys have been conducted by NSSO. Presently, Planning Commission is following Tendulkar Committee methodology for estimation of poverty. The percentage of persons living below the poverty line among Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes, Other Backward Classes, others and all population, at all India level for the years 2004-05 and 2011-12 have been estimated by the Planning Commission, which are as follows.


Estimates of Poverty Ratio among Social Groups
Social Group
Rural
Urban
2004-05
2011-12
2004-05
2011-12
Scheduled Tribes
62.3
45.3
35.5
24.1
Scheduled Castes
53.5
31.5
40.6
21.7
Other Backward Classes
39.8
22.6
30.6
15.4
Others
27.1
15.5
16.1
8.2
All Population
41.8
25.7
25.7
13.7






 











Note-The poverty ratios among the social groups are estimated from the percentage distribution of persons of the respective social groups as obtained from the large sample survey consumer expenditure data of the NSS and the poverty line for all population.     



Various programmes for people below the poverty line including tribals are run by different Ministries. The Ministry of Tribal Affairs supplements the efforts of other Central Ministries by way of various developmental interventions in critical sectors through specially tailored schemes. The Ministry of Tribal Affairs is running the following schemes/programmes to improve the living standards of STs across the country.


    I.    Scheme of Construction of Hostels for ST Girls and Boys
   II.    Scheme of Establishment of Ashram School in Tribal Sub-Plan Areas
  III.    Post-Matric Scholarship for ST students
   IV.    Upgradation of Merit
    V.    Pre-Matric Scholarship for ST students studying in classes IX & X.
   VI.    Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship for STs
  VII.    Scheme of National Overseas Scholarship for STs
 VIII.    Top Class Education for ST students
   IX.    Grants in aid to Voluntary Organisations working for the welfare of STs
    X.    Coaching for Scheduled Tribes
   XI.    Strengthening Education among Scheduled Tribe Girls in Low Literacy Districts.
  XII.    Vocational Training in Tribal Areas
 XIII.    Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)
  XIV.    Grants-in-Aid to STDCCs for MFP Operations
   XV.    Mechanism for Marketing of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) through Minimum  

              Support Price (MSP) and Development of Value Chain for MFP as a measure of 
               social safety  for MFP gatherers,
  XVI.    Grants under Article 275(1) of the Constitution of India
 XVII.    Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub Plan (SCA to TSP)
XVIII.    Development of Tribal Products/Produce (Grants in aid to Tribal Cooperative 

               Marketing  Development Federation of India Limited (TRIFED)
  XIX.    A new Scheme called `Van Bandhu Kalyan Yojana` has been launched.


          This information was given by Minister of Tribal Affairs Shri Jual Oram in a

           written reply in Lok Sabha today.

***** 

Infrastructure for Tribal Population
The Ministry of Tribal Affairs administers two Special Area Programmes viz. Programme under Article 275(1) and Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Plan (SCA to TSP) as detailed below:

i. Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Plan (SCA to TSP) – Funds are provided by this Ministry to the 23 State Governments as an additive to the State Plan for economic development of tribals in the States covering skill development and employment-cum-income generation activities and the infrastructure incidental thereto.

ii. Grant under Article 275(1) of the Constitution: Under the programme, grant is released to 27 States including the State of Jharkhand having ST population for raising the level of Administration in Scheduled Areas and for the welfare of Scheduled Tribes. Funds are also given for setting up of Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs).

In addition to the above programmes, the Ministry has launched a new Scheme called ‘Van Bandhu Kalyan Yojana’, which aims to develop the backward blocks in the States having Schedule V Areas as model Blocks with visible infrastructural facilities by way of appropriate convergence of available resources with the Central Government and State Governments.

Also, two schemes are being implemented, namely ‘Construction of Hostels for ST Boys and Girls’ and ‘Construction of Ashram School for ST Boys and Girls’ to provide/improve infrastructure in Tribal Area for welfare of Tribal people. 100% Grant-in-Aid is given for implementation of the said schemes for Girls and naxal affected areas.

Following schemes are also implemented for welfare of ST people in all over India including hilly region:

(i) Pre-Matric Scholarship for ST students studying class IX & X.

(ii) Post Matric Scholarship for ST students.

(iii) Up-gradation of Merit.

(iv) Construction of Hostel for ST Boys and Girls.

(v) Construction of Ashram Schools for ST Boys and Girls

(vi) Vocational Training in Tribal Areas.

(vii) Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship for ST students.

(viii) National Overseas Scholarship (NOS) for ST students

(ix) Top Class Scholarship scheme for ST students

The schemes at point (i) to (v) are centrally sponsored schemes and the fund under the schemes are granted as per demand and proposal of the State Governments. The schemes at point (vi) to (viii) are central sector scheme and the fund is granted to the beneficiaries as per norms of the schemes.

This information was given by Minister of Tribal Affairs Shri Jual Oram in a written reply in Lok Sabha today. 


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Schemes for Tribals
The Ministry of Tribal Affairs administers two special area programmes namely Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub Plan (SCA to TSP) covering 23 States and Grants under Article 275 (1) of the Constitution of India covering 27 States, including Jharkhand and Kerala. Under these programmes, funds are provided to the State Governments as an additive to other components of Tribal Sub Plan for undertaking various tribal development initiatives and for raising the level of administration in tribal areas with an aim to boost the socio-economic status of tribal people. The grants under Article 275(1) of the Constitution also cover setting up of Ekalavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs). Besides, this Ministry has launched a new Central Sector Scheme ‘VanbandhuKalyanYojana’ during 2014-15, which aims at developing backward Blocks in the States having Schedule V Areas as model Blocks with visible infrastructural facilities by way of appropriate convergence of resources available with the Central and State Governments.

Ministry of Tribal Affairs has issued “Operational Guidelines for Formulation, Implementation and Monitoring of Tribal Sub-Plan and Article 275(1) grants” in the month of March, 2014 for effective implementation of Schemes administered by this Ministry wherein issues related to allocation of funds, priority areas, need for nodal department in States, judicious utilization of TSP fund, institutionalizing the instruments for ensuring transparency, accountability and social audit have been stressed upon. The Operational Guidelines have laid special emphasis on strengthening of institutions viz. Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA) / Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP), Micro-projects, Tribal Research Institutions (TRIs) for better implementation of tribal welfare programmes. During the current year, specific funds have been sanctioned to the State Governments for strengthening of ITDAs/ITDPs.

This information was given by Minister of Tribal Affairs Shri Jual Oram in a written reply in Lok Sabha today.  

**** 
Coaching Facilities for Tribal Students The Ministry is implementing a Central Sector Scheme of “Coaching for Scheduled Tribes” in the country under which Pre-Examination Coaching Centres (PECs) run by State Governments/Universities/Registered Private Institutes are supported for providing coaching to ST students.

The scheme is demand-driven and need-based. Funds are not allocated but released to Coaching Institutions on submission of complete proposals along with the Utilization Certificates for previous grants and on fulfillment of the provisions of General Financial Rules (GFR), 2005 and norms of the Scheme.

The Ministry impresses upon the grantee Coaching Institutions to submit the Utilization Certificates for previous grants alongwith complete proposals and ensures that further funds are not released to them till these are submitted.

This information was given by Minister of Tribal Affairs Shri Jual Oram in a written reply in Lok Sabha today. 


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Residential Schools for STs

            Ekalavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs), with the capacity of 480 students in each school, are set up in the States/ UTs under the special area programmeof the Ministry viz. grants under Article 275(1) of the Constitution of India. Besides, the Ministry also provides funds for setting up residential Ashram schools under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme ‘Establishment of Ashram Schools in Tribal Sub Plan Areas’. The objective of these interventions is to provide quality middle and high level education to Scheduled Tribe (ST) students in remote areas, not only to enable them to avail reservation in high and professional educational courses and get jobs in public and private sectors, but also to have access to the best opportunities in education at par with the non-ST population.

         A total of 197 EMRSs and 892 residential Ashram Schools have been sanctioned by the Ministry across the country so far. Details of fund released to the State Governments during the last three years are given below:

          During the current year 2014-15, a total of 44 residential schools, including seven EMRSs in Karnataka State, have been sanctioned so far as per detail given below:

S No
State
No. of Schools sanctioned during 2014-15
Fund Sanctioned
(Rs. in Crore)
1.
Andhra Pradesh
10
120.00
2.
Assam
1
16.00
3.
Bihar
7
15.00
4.
Jharkhand
11
46.00
5.
Karnataka
7
10.00
6.
Madhya Pradesh
3
36.00
7.
Maharashtra
3
20.00
8.
Telangana
1
12.00
9.
Tamil Nadu
1
2.00
Total
44
277.00
  
This information was given by Minister of Tribal Affairs Shri Jual Oram in a written reply in Lok Sabha today.

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Promotion of Primary Education
The children going to school in tribal areas has increased every year. The data for gross enrolment ratio for the last three years are not maintained in this Ministry. As per Statistics of School Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), 2006-07 and Abstract of Statistics of School Education 2007-08, 2009-10, 2010-11’; the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) for Elementary stage (Class I-VIII) during2007-08 was 109.60%, during 2009-10 was 118.85% and during 2010-11 was 119.70% which shows an increase in enrolment ratio among ST Children.

Other steps taken to promote primary education in tribal areas are:

I. Scheme of Hostels for ST Girls and Boys.

II. Scheme of establishment of Ashram Schools in tribal areas.

III. Schemes under Sarva Sikhsha Abhiyan.

This information was given by Minister of Tribal Affairs Shri Jual Oram in a written reply in Lok Sabha today.
 






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