Initiatives taken to Reduce Malnutrition




Initiatives taken to Reduce Malnutrition 

As per the World Bank Report titled ‘Nutrition in India’, India loses over 12 billion U.S. Dollar in Gross Domestic Product due to vitamin and mineral deficiencies in Indian population.  It also reports significant direct and indirect economic losses due to under-nutrition associated with direct productivity losses estimated at more that 10 percent of lifetime individual earnings and about 2-3 percent loss of GDP. Indirect losses are due to poor mental development and schooling, and increased costs of healthcare.

As per the comparison from second and third National Family health Survey conducted in 1998-99 and 2005-06 respectively, the prevalence of stunting among children under-three years of age has declined from 51 per cent to 44.9 percent; however the prevalence of wasting among children under age three years has increased from 19.7 per cent to 22.7 percent. 


The Government has accorded high priority to the issue of malnutrition in the country and is implementing several schemes/programmes under different Ministries/Departments through State Governments/UT Administrations, the details being as follows:

·         Under multi-sectoral approach for accelerated action on the determinants of malnutrition in targeting nutrition in schemes/programmes of all the sectors. The schemes/programmes include the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), National Health Mission (NHM), Mid-Day Meal Scheme, Rajiv Gandhi Schemes for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG) namely SABLA,  Indira Gandhi MatritvaSahyogYojna (IGMSY) as direct targeted interventions. Besides, indirect Multi-sectoral interventions include Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), National Horticulture Mission, National Food Security Mission, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, National Rural Drinking Water Programme etc.  All these schemes address one or other aspect of nutrition.

·         The specific interventions targeted towardsthe vulnerable groups include children below 6 years. The main schemes/programmes of Ministry of Women and Child Development which have a bearing on the nutritional status includes the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme which provides a package of six services namely supplementary nutrition, pre-school non-formal education, nutrition & health education, immunization, health check-up and referral services.

·         Under National Health Mission of Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, the remedial steps taken are as follows:

-        Promotion of appropriate infant and young child feeding practices that include early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding till 6 months of age and appropriate complementary feeding after 6 months of age.

-        Management of malnutrition and common neonatal and childhood illnesses at community and facility level by training service providers in IMNCI (Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illnesses) training.

-        Treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition at special units called the Nutrition Rehabilitation Centres (NRCs), set up at public health facilities. Presently 875 such centres are functional all over the country.

-        Specific program to prevent and combat micronutrient deficiencies of Vitamin A and Iron & Folic Acid (IFA) in under-five children, children of 5 to 10 years of age, and adolescents. 

-        Village Health and Nutrition Days and Mother and Child Protection Card are the joint initiative of the Ministries of Health & Family welfare and the Ministry of Woman and Child for addressing the nutrition concerns in children, pregnant women and lactating mothers.

The State wise performance available from surveys and reports received from States of above mentioned interventions in last three financial years is placed below:-

Status of nutrition indicators as per Annual Health Survey

(conducted in 8 Empowered action Group  States & Assam)*  
STATE
AHS (2010-11)
AHS (2011-12)
AHS (2012-13)
Assam
72
70.7
63.2
Bihar
61.9
58.8
56.2
Chhattisgarh
71.7
68.6
68.3
Jharkhand
60.1
61.9
58.6
Madhya Pradesh
54.5
56.6
58.1
Orissa
63.4
71.3
68.6
Rajasthan
59.4
66.1
74.2
Uttar Pradesh
37.2
39.2
40.8
Uttarakhand
55
57.3
57.1







Percentage of new-borns breastfeeding within one hour of birth
STATE
AHS (2010-11)
AHS (2011-12)
AHS (2012-13)
Assam
69.6
70.9
75.6
Bihar
30.3
34.6
37
Chhattisgarh
63.9
65.7
69.3
Jharkhand
37.9
41.2
43.3
Madhya Pradesh
61.5
65
66.8
Orissa
71.5
74.3
78.7
Rajasthan
48.6
50.1
54.1
Uttar Pradesh
32.9
36
39.4
Uttarakhand
63.2
63.7
65.1








Percentage of under-five children received  Iron Folic Acid (IFA) tablet/dose
STATE
AHS (2010-11)
AHS (2011-12)
AHS (2012-13)
Assam
27.7
26.3
25.1
Bihar
29
31.3
33.8
Chhattisgarh
37.7
38.7
42.7
Jharkhand
16.9
15.9
Madhya Pradesh
24.8
24.7
29.1
Orissa
23.3
24
25.3
Rajasthan
9.4
10.9
11.6
Uttar Pradesh
10.6
13.2
13.5
Uttarakhand
14.3
15.5
17.2









*for other States, data is captured under DLHS IV(2012-13) and full report is yet to be published
Performance of Nutrition Rehabilitation Centres across States/UTs



2012-13
S. No.
State/UTs
No. of NRCs
Children admitted in NRCs
India

761
128431
1
Bihar
38
17769
2
Chhattisgarh
46
4681
3
Himachal Pradesh


4
Jammu & Kashmir


5
Jharkhand
68
6425
6
Madhya Pradesh
286
65125
7
Orissa
32
2076
8
Rajasthan
40
6162
9
Uttar Pradesh
22
1580
10
Uttarakhand


11
Arunachal Pradesh


12
Assam
10
158
13
Manipur


14
Meghalaya


15
Mizoram


16
Nagaland


17
Sikkim


18
Tripura


19
Andhra Pradesh &Telengana
17
904
20
Goa


21
Gujarat
109
17503
22
Haryana


23
Karnataka
47
2360
24
Kerala


25
Maharashtra
15
1156
26
Punjab


27
Tamil Nadu


28
West Bengal
20
2022
29
A & N Islands


30
Chandigarh


31
Dadra & Nagar Haveli


32
Daman & Diu


33
Delhi
11
510
34
Lakshadweep


35
Puducherry






2013-14
S. No.
State/UTs
No. of NRCs
Children admitted in NRCs
India

875
131249
1
Bihar
 38
9414
2
Chhattisgarh
 55
7508
3
Himachal Pradesh
 2
45
4
Jammu & Kashmir
 1
115
5
Jharkhand
 67
5637
6
Madhya Pradesh
 312
66742
7
Orissa
 41
5058
8
Rajasthan
 40
4872
9
Uttar Pradesh
 25
3713
10
Uttarakhand
 3
259
11
Arunachal Pradesh
 1
 Report not received 
12
Assam
 14
1275
13
Manipur


14
Meghalaya
 5
192
15
Mizoram


16
Nagaland
 1
Report not received
17
Sikkim


18
Tripura


19
Andhra Pradesh &Telengana
 30
5707
20
Goa


21
Gujarat
 120
9236
22
Haryana


23
Karnataka
 57
4906
24
Kerala
 3
137
25
Maharashtra
 15
2546
26
Punjab


27
Tamil Nadu
 2
60
28
West Bengal
 31
3614
29
A & N Islands


30
Chandigarh
 1
29
31
Dadra & Nagar Haveli


32
Daman & Diu


33
Delhi

184
34
Lakshadweep
 11

35
Puducherry




Initiatives taken to Reduce Malnutrition Initiatives taken to Reduce Malnutrition Reviewed by Ajit Kumar on 8:37 PM Rating: 5

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