Quality of education


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Quality of higher education

To ensure quality education to be imparted in All India Council for Technical Education(AICTE) approved institutions, AICTE has set norms and standards to regulate the technical education by way of grant of approval for conducting courses and renewal of the same. In consonance with the provision of the University Grant Commission(UGC) (Establishment of and Maintenance of Standards in Private Universities) Regulations, 2003, the UGC has already conducted on the spot inspection of 159 out of 278 Private Universities to assess whether the Private Universities are fulfilling the minimum criteria in terms of programmes, faculty, infrastructural facilities, financial viability, etc., as laid down from time to time by the UGC and other concerned statutory bodies/councils. Copy of the UGC visiting committee report is sent to the concerned Private University to submit compliance in respect of the suggestions given by the UGC Committee. The report of the visiting committee alongwith the compliance submitted by the University is placed before a Committee of the Members of the Commission for consideration. The recommendations of this Committee are placed before the Commission to take final decision in the matter. As such, UGC is taking all the necessary steps to ensure quality of education in Universities.


There is not a single Indian educational institution in the top 20 world class institutions, as per various world rankings. To increase investments in the infrastructure of higher educational institutions, the Higher Education Financing Agency (HEFA) has been set up with an initial capital base of Rs. 300 crores. The HEFA has been incorporated as a Section 8 Company under the Company Act, 2013 and would mobilize debt/Bond funds from the market to finance improvement in infrastructure and research facilities in the higher educational institutions. The loans would be serviced through the internal accruals of the institutions.

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Quality of education at primary/secondary levels

In order to focus on quality education, the Central RTE Rules have been amended on 20 th February, 2017 to include reference on class-wise, subject-wise Learning Outcomes. The Learning Outcomes for each class in Languages (Hindi, English and Urdu), Mathematics, Environmental Studies, Science and Social Science up to the elementary stage have, accordingly, been finalized and shared with all States and UTs. These would serve as a guideline for States and UTs to ensure that all children acquire appropriate learning level.

The students learning assessment will be according to the Learning Outcomes developed by NCERT. The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) conducts periodic national surveys of learning achievement of children in classes III, V and VIII and X. Four rounds of National Achievement Survey (NAS) have been conducted so far for class V and three rounds for classes III & VIII. These reveal improvement in learning achievement levels of pupils, in identified subjects from first round to fourth round. From current year onwards, Government has decided to conduct National Achievement Survey where district will be the sampling unit. The students learning assessment will be according to the Learning Outcomes developed by NCERT. Under the Centrally Sponsored Schemes of Sarva Shiskha Abhiyan (SSA) and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), the State Governments and UT Administrations are supported on several interventions to improve teaching standards, including regular in-service teachers’ training, induction training for newly recruited teachers, recruitment of additional teachers for improving pupil-teacher ratio, academic support for teachers through block and cluster resource centres, Maths and Science kits, Lab equipment, special teaching for learning enhancement, ICT facilities in schools, introduction of vocational education component at the secondary level and activities under ‘Unnati’ project for improvement in English language skills Additionally, the Central Government, supports States and UTs on early grade reading, writing & comprehension, and early Mathematics programmes through a sub-programme of SSA namely ‘Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat’ (PBBB) in classes I and II. Further, the Government has launched Rashtriya Aavishkar Abhiyan (RAA) programme on 09.07.2015, inter alia, as a subcomponent of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), to motivate and engage children of the age group from 6-18 years in Science, Mathematics and Technology through observation, experimentation, inference drawing, model building, etc. both through inside and outside classroom activities.

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Quality of education in rural areas

PRATHAM, a non-governmental organization conducted the annual achievement surveys released in the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER). It is a household survey, limited to rural areas of the country. The Department of School Education & Literacy, Ministry of Human Resource Development was not associated with this ASER - 2016 survey.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 lays down the duties of the appropriate Government and the local authority to ensure that good quality elementary education conforming to norms and standards is provided, curriculum and courses of study are prescribed in a timely manner, and teachers are trained. In order to focus on quality education, the Central RTE Rules have been amended on 20th February, 2017 to include reference on class-wise, subject-wise Learning Outcomes. The Learning Outcomes for each class in Languages (Hindi, English and Urdu), Mathematics, Environmental Studies, Science and Social Science up to the elementary stage have, accordingly, been finalized and shared with all States and UTs. These would serve as a guideline for States and UTs to ensure that all children acquire appropriate learning level.

Under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Sarva Shiskha Abhiyan (SSA), the State Governments and UT Administrations are supported on several interventions to improve teaching standards, including regular in-service teachers’ training, induction training for newly recruited teachers, training of all untrained teachers to acquire professional qualifications through Open Distance Learning (ODL) mode, recruitment of additional teachers for improving pupil-teacher ratios, academic support for teachers through block and cluster resource centres, continuous and comprehensive evaluation system to equip the teacher to measure pupil performance and provide remedial action wherever required, and teacher and school grants for development of appropriate teaching-learning materials, etc.

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Quota of OBCs in higher education

The University Grants Commission(UGC) has circulated the Central Educational Institutions (Reservation in Admission) Act, 2006 and Amendment Act, 2012 to all Central Educational Institutions directing them to implement reservation provisions for Other Backward Classes (OBCs) including admission of OBC students to these Institutions. UGC has issued instruction to all the grant-in-aid institutions funded by the Central Government, except minority Institutions under Article 30(1) of the Constitution of India to implement 27% reservation for OBCs.

As per the information available with the Ministry, during 2015-16, 22 out of 40 Central Universities have successfully achieved the prescribed percentage of student intake from OBC Community. Some of the universities like Aligarh Muslim University, Jamia Milia University and some like Mizoram University, Nagaland University, North Eastern Hill University could not achieve the prescribed percentage as these were either minority institutions or were situated in Tribal dominated areas where less OBC students apply for admissions. All Indian Institutes of Technology/National Institutes of Technology/Indian Institutes of Information Technology achieved the stipulated 27 % intake of OBC students. Further, 13 Indian Institutes of Management out of 19 and 22 out of 31 National Institutes of Technology recorded more than the stipulated 27% student intake.

The Government of India and UGC has been continuously monitoring the progress of implementation of Reservation policy for OBCs in admission to courses at all level in Universities/Institutions.

The Ministry of Human Resource Development through UGC instructs Universities/Institutions to furnish periodic reports on the implementation of reservation guidelines for OBCs for admissions to courses at all level and Hostel accommodation for students.

UGC has a dedicated SC/ST/OBC section which monitors effective implementation of the Reservation Policy for all communities including OBCs in admission and recruitment to various posts in universities and colleges.

This information was given by the Minister of State (HRD), Dr. Mahendra Nath Pandey today in a written reply to a Rajya Sabha question.
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