Kids develop self-esteem even before age five



Kids develop self-esteem even before age five

Children may develop a sense of self-esteem even before they begin kindergarten, reveals an interesting research."We found that by as young as five years of age, self-esteem is established strongly enough to be measured using sensitive techniques," said lead study author Dario Cvencek, research scientist at University of Washington.
The study conducted in January 2016 used a newly developed test to assess implicit self-esteem in more than 200 children up to five-year-old."Some scientists consider preschoolers too young to have developed a positive or negative sense about themselves," study co-author Andrew Meltzoff from University of Washington noted.Until now, no measurement tool has been able to detect self-esteem in preschool-aged children as the existing self-esteem tests require the cognitive or verbal talk.Researchers created a Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT), to measure how strongly children feel positively about themselves.To make the task appropriate for preschoolers, a mix of 234 boys and girls of five-year-old from the Seattle area, replaced words related to the self ("me," "not me") with objects. They used small unfamiliar flags, and where told about "yours" and "not yours".Using buttons on a computer, children responded to a series of "me" and "not me" flags, using words and pressing the buttons.The results showed that the five-year-old associated themselves more with "good" than with "bad", and this was equally pronounced in both girls and boys.A gender identity task assessed the children's sense of whether they are a boy or a girl, called a "gender in-group preference".Children with high self-esteem and strong sense of gender identity showed preferences for members of their own gender."Self-esteem appears to play a critical role in how children form various social identities. Our findings underscore the importance of the first five years as a foundation for life," Cvencek said.The study was published in the journal Experimental Social Psychology. 

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During the 3rd Arab Publishers Conference, Challenges of Translation in the Arab World Debated 

Initiatives that answer the challenges of translation in the Arab world were discussed at the 3rd Arab Publishers Conference which started yesterday in Sharjah.In a panel discussion involving experts in the world of translation and moderated by Dr. Parween Habib, Arab poet, academic and media researcher in the cultural and literary fields, panelists discussed issues such as the evolution of the translation movement and the governments’ role in supporting it. 

UAE cultural and media personality Dr. Ali bin Tamim spoke about Kalima, the translation project of the Abu Dhabi Tourism and Cultural Authority that he once headed. “The project worked on supporting the publishing houses and on building relationships with the translators,” he said adding that the project involved translations from 13 languages and the signing of nearly 1,000 agreements out of which 850 books were already published .

 Dr. Bin Tamim, who is the Media and Cultural Counselor at the Office of the Deputy Chairman of the Executive Council of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the Secretary General of the Sheikh Zayed Book Award and the Editor in Chief of 24.ae news website, said that the reality of the translation in the Arab World suffers from non being continuous, from lack of funding and from the domination of ideology over the search for knowledge when it comes to the selection of texts. When discussing translation in the Arab world, Philip F. Kennedy, associate professor of Arabic Literature and Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies and Comparative Literature at New York University said that the UAE is establishing itself as the capital of translation in the Arab world. Kennedy, who is also the editor of Library of Arabic Literature said that “there’s a dearth of translations from Arabic into English” adding that the project has a focus on pre-modern Arabic texts and making those little-known texts available to English speakers. 

As the director of Literature Across Frontiers - a European Platform for Literary Exchange, Translation and Policy Debate, based in Wales, United Kingdom, Alexandra Büchler said that their project aims to support intercultural dialogue through translation.In addition to focusing on the translation of works of fiction into the various European languages, Büchler said that their organization holds conferences and seminars as well as training programs for translators and conducts research. She said that in a study that they conducted in collaboration with the Anna Lindh Foundation regarding the translation of Arabic texts into English in the UK she had the opportunity to gain some insight into this area. “There’s definitely more work that needs to be done,” she said. 

Buchler added that what is missing is more coordination amongst Arab countries, developing local talent – the translators, a flow of information on who the important authors are and better mobility for translators so that they can internationalize their careers.

Speaking about his experience in the field of Chinese-Arabic translation, Ahmed El Said, Director of Bait Al Hikmah for Culture, Publishing, Media and Translation which operates in China, Egypt and the UAE said that most of the translation from Arabic is English-centric despite the fact that there are many other wide-spoken languages around the world like Chinese. “Forty percent of the inhabitants of the world speak either Arabic or Chinese,” he said. He emphasized the important role of governments and gave the example of the Chinese government which has developed a policy to support the translation movement of Chinese books. El Said said that the crisis of translation in the Arab world is summarized in three points: “What do we translate? Who translates? Who reads?” Translators in the Arab world have a main challenge, they are translating between two languages that they don’t speak. “I translate from Chinese, which is not my mother tongue, into Classical Arabic which is not a language that I use on a day-to-day basis,” he said adding that classical Arabic is going through a crisis and must be protected.  

On the sidelines of the conference El Said held an open discussion with Zhang Khoi, Director of the International cooperation department at the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television in China. Khoi spoke to the visitors about the state of publishing in China and cooperation with the Arab world publishing industry. He said that cooperation is evident from the participation of Arab publishing houses in publishing events in China and the vice versa. He also added that due to market demands, the Chinese market has recently put an emphasis on digital publishing alongside traditional publishing.

In another discussion, Nour Al Hassan, Co-Founder and CEO of Tarjama, a leading translating agency based in the MENA region spoke to attendees about her experience in the field of translation and her entrepreneurial projects.  Emphasizing the importance of specialization, Al Hassan said: “Our translators are for the most part specialized, they have to be interested in what they are translating,” she said. Al Hassan also discussed Tarjama’s future projects which include training women in the field of translation.

The Future of libraries in digital era debated at 3rd Arab Publishers Conference

International and regional experts debate issues facing public libraries and free content 

How to protect the future of libraries in the digital age was the subject of a panel discussion at the 3rd Arab Publishers Conference at Al Jawaher Reception and Convention Centre in Sharjah yesterday (Monday). Organised by the Arab Publishers’ Association (APA) and the Emirates Publishers Association (EPA), the conference addresses a number of vital and important themes in the publishing industry including a session titled “A Look at Tomorrow’s Libraries”. The panel included Nick Stopforth, the Head of Libraries and Culture for the UK’s largest geographical Metropolitan Borough, Doncaster Council, Tariq Al Shalil, Vice President of the Saudi Federation of Libraries and Information; Gerald Leitner, Secretary General of the Austrian Library Association and member of many international expert groups for e-lending and development; Khalid Azab, Head of the Central Projects and Services Sector at the Bibliotheca Alexandria and moderator, Maryam Al Shenasi, President of Emirates Publishing Association. 

Nick Stopfort begun by asking how we future proof our libraries in light of digital advancements when they are revenue poor and readers can access cheap books from supermarkets which makes free books from libraries less attractive and said the answer needs three pronged approach.“First we can use data from library management services, and track user behavior following how they use the library. We can learn from retailers who look at the user journey and promote material accordingly. Publishers want to learn what motivates a reader to go from one book to another and we don’t use that information currently.”Stopfort added that the second step was strategic partnership which takes library services in the UK out of their comfort zone, adding, “Most government services have gone online in the UK, everything a customer does needs to be online but no one is monitoring the digital user’s needs. People need to know where the resources are online and how to use them effectively, therefore someone needs to ensure that the user knows how to do this. We work with Google and banks to bring either investment in providing the hardware – or workforce volunteers, providing digital skills to train the user to do this.”

Gerald Leitner said that when we talk about the future of anything we are always on unsafe territory and quoted Winston Churchill who said, ‘It is hard to make predictions especially about the future’. Leitner said, “ Years ago they predicted the library would be obsolete, the death of books was proclaimed, books were a symbol of yesterday’s world,  their time was up – libraries are no longer up to date. But 25 years later libraries are more vital than ever. Beautiful new library buildings are being built; there is no death blow to libraries.”He added that new concepts and philosophies are developing with new technologies that focus on the user wants and needs. He said, “Librarians and the function of libraries have changed enormously over the last 25 years. We make a contribution to the knowledge area, but the copyright laws restrain us from operating effectively. 

Today libraries are hybrid, we offer material for loan and on the other hand, via the internet, we are offering access to e-books, journal articles, films and music given electronically from data bases.”Khalid Azab said, Management of information through storing it and giving it to the platform of computers raises the question of how to manage information on the internet through digital libraries to guarantee the accuracy of the information. He pointed out that the international federation of publishers started, through universities, to monitor this and put general policies to manage digital libraries.“We see this in the University of Alexandria in Egypt and also in Morocco.  But we have a problem in Arab libraries. We need a browser in Arabic to give information clearly to the Arab readers. We also have copyright issues that faces the Arab reader that effects the education system in the Arab world as universities cannot publish university documents. said Azab.

Dr. Tariq Al Shalil, Vice President of the Saudi Federation of Libraries and Information said, “I want to talk about the transformation that took place in the publishing sector. The relationship between publishing houses and information institutions because the functionality of each party is becoming more vague day after day. Management of digital content is a new responsibility for government institutions and the level to which information is made available are new decisions that have to be made. This impact has affected the publishing houses that started to face issues when it comes to the unrestricted use of published information, providing this content for free is one objective but those institutions feel they should have some profit for providing this content,  the questions is who is responsible for ensuring this profit, libraries government or publishing houses?”

In answer to a question from the floor regarding the future of libraries in light of piracy Al Shalil said, “Publishers need to be part of the service to give free information to people who cannot afford to get the information in academic libraries but the role of the publisher could be to give the service as a social service to the public. The concept of ownership is to make information accessible to the readers and there should be cooperation to make it available without negatively impacting the value of the publisher.”

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10 injured as plane makes emergency landing in Pakistan 

At least 10 passengers were injured when the tyre of a plane burst during an emergency landing at Pakistan's Lahore airport on Tuesday.The Karachi-Lahore flight NL-142 of Shaheen Airlines, carrying 276 passengers, made an emergency landing in Lahore, Daw3n online quoted airport sources as saying.The injured were provided with immediate medical treatment. None of them was in critical condition, the sources said.The tyre of the aircraft burst due to a fault in the landing gear. The aircraft skidded off the runway after the tyre burst.Fear and panic gripped the passengers, who were evacuated through an emergency gate.Pakistan's airline industry has been tarnished by a string of tragic accidents in recent years.In April, 2012, all 127 people aboard a Bhoja Air Boeing 737-200 plane were killed when the flight from Karachi airport crashed five kms from Islamabad.

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Obese people need more vitamin E than others 


Obese people need to have a diet rich in vitamin E as they require more than normal levels of the vitamin and at the same time they get less of it, suggests new research.While their weight and other problems cause increased oxidative stress, those same problems actually reduce their effective use of vitamin E, the study pointed out.This vitamin is found at highest levels in some foods such as nuts, seeds, and olive oil.Chronic deficiency in vitamin E could compound the wide range of diseases known to be associated with metabolic syndrome, including heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and cancer, the study pointed out.Some of the findings of this study are counterintuitive, the researchers said, because vitamin E is a fat soluble micronutrient and, in theory, should be available at increased levels in people who are overweight and eat large amounts of fatty foods.However, the study found that even though circulating vitamin E in the bloodstream may be high, in obese people this essential micronutrient is not finding its way into tissues where it is most needed."Vitamin E is associated with lipids, or the fats found in the blood, but it is mostly just a micronutrient that's going along for the ride," said one of the researchers Maret Traber from Oregon State University in the US."What we found was that tissues of obese people are rejecting intake of some of these lipids because they already have enough fat," Traber said. "In the process they also reject the associated vitamin E," Traber explained.In this study, the researchers made their findings with a double-blind study of adults, some of whom were healthy and others with metabolic syndrome. The authors concluded that its findings support higher dietary requirements of vitamin E for adults with metabolic syndrome.The findings appeared in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 

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TEHRAN (FNA)- Obese people with metabolic syndrome face an unexpected quandary when it comes to vitamin E -- they need more than normal levels of the vitamin because their weight and other problems are causing increased oxidative stress, but those same problems actually cause their effective use of vitamin E to be reduced.
As a result, experts in the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University say that a huge number of Americans may be chronically deficient in vitamin E, which could compound the wide range of diseases known to be associated with metabolic syndrome, including heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and cancer.
Metabolic syndrome affects more than one out of every three adults in the US It is characterized in people who have at least three of five common issues that raise health concerns -- excess abdominal fat, high blood pressure, low "good" cholesterol, and/or high levels of blood sugar and triglycerides.
Some of the findings of this study are counterintuitive, the researchers said, because vitamin E is a fat soluble micronutrient and, in theory, should be available at increased levels in people who are overweight and eat large amounts of fatty foods.
However, a study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that even though circulating vitamin E in the bloodstream may be high, in obese people this essential micronutrient is not finding its way into tissues where it is most needed.
"Vitamin E is associated with lipids, or the fats found in the blood, but it's mostly just a micronutrient that's going along for the ride," said Maret Traber, a professor in the College of Public Health and Human Science at OSU, and a principal investigator in the Linus Pauling Institute.
"What we found was that tissues of obese people are rejecting intake of some of these lipids because they already have enough fat," Traber said. "In the process they also reject the associated vitamin E. So even though the tissues are facing serious oxidative stress, the delivery of vitamin E to them is being impaired, and they are not getting enough of this important micronutrient."
Fat generates oxidants that increase metabolic stress, Traber said. Vitamin E, along with vitamin C and some other antioxidants, are natural dietary defenses against this problem. However, millions of Americans -- more than 92 percent by some measures -- eat a diet deficient in vitamin E, often about half the desired amount. It's found at highest levels in some foods such as nuts, seeds, and olive oil.
"Another concern is that when people try to lose weight, often the first thing they do is limit their fat intake," Traber said. "This may make sense if you are trying to reduce calories, but fat is the most common source of vitamin E in our diets, so that approach to weight loss can sometimes actually worsen a nutrient deficiency."
A reasonable approach, Traber said, would be to try to eat a balanced and healthy diet, even if attempting to lose weight, while also taking a daily multivitamin that includes 100 percent of the recommended daily allowance of vitamin E, which is 15 milligrams per day. It's also important to eat some food containing at least a little fat when taking a supplement, because otherwise this fat-soluble vitamin -- in the form found in most dietary supplements -- will not be well-absorbed.
In this study, the researchers made their findings with a double-blind study of adults, some of whom were healthy and others with metabolic syndrome. The authors concluded that its findings support higher dietary requirements of vitamin E for adults with metabolic syndrome.

Kids develop self-esteem even before age five Kids develop self-esteem even before age five Reviewed by Ajit Kumar on 8:24 PM Rating: 5

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